• BBC newsBBC News | April 20, 2016
    [read the article]


    By Ahemed Maher

    Om Hussein is a mother close to breaking point. Along with her husband and their four young children, she is struggling with poverty like millions of other Iraqis.

    Her husband, Ali, is unemployed. He is diabetic and has heart problems. She has been the breadwinner for the past nine years, eking out a living as a housemaid. But she is now exhausted, and can no longer work.

    "I am tired and we cannot make any money to pay for the rent, medicine, children's needs and food," Ms Hussein said at the family's temporary one bedroom home in eastern Baghdad.

    Their dilapidated house collapsed a few months ago, and they have survived thanks to the help of friends and relatives.

    Her husband added: "I worked at everything you could think of. As a butcher, a day labourer, a rubbish collector. I would not ask for money, but they would give it to us. I would not ask for food.

    "I would tell my son to collect waste bread from the street and we would eat it, but I never asked for food or money."

    Facing such poverty, Ms Hussein was driven to make a huge sacrifice.

    "I decided to sell my kidney," she said. "I could no longer provide for my family. It was better than selling my body or living on charity."...

  • Guardia CivilGuardia Civil | April 11, 2016

    [read the original article in Spanish here/leer en Espanol]


    • The Spanish Civil Guard has detected a Social Security fraud enabling several citizens of Bulgarian to obtain access to dialysis and the waiting list for kidney transplantation.
    • In the Community of Madrid, 14 patients were detected who were fraudulently receiving dialysis or had already received a kidney transplant, resulting in a total cost of more than 1.5 million Euros.
    • The investigation has aborted an illegal medical tourism operation that, had it continued, would have harmed patients on the waiting list for transplants.

    The Civil Guard, as part of operation RENIBUS, has investigated a fraud involving citizens from Eastern Europe, mainly from Bulgaria, who have defrauded Social Security by highly fictitious means, in order to obtain the healthcare card and thus gain access to dialysis treatment and the waiting list for kidney transplantation.

    In the same operation seven fraudulent companies were detected giving foreign workers highly illegal permits, as well as numerous fraudulent contracts in the RETA (Special Scheme for Self-Employed).

    During the investigation, the Guardia Civil has enjoyed the cooperation of the National Transplant Organization, the Ministry of Employment and Social Security, and other agencies under the Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality and the Ministry of Health of the Madrid's community.

    The operation began after a complaint was received from the Regional Office for the Coordination of Transplants under the Ministry of Health of the Community of Madrid, in which an unusual increase in patients from Eastern Europe on waiting lists for kidney transplants was reported.

    The agents found a large number of cases in which people of other nationalities were fraudulently accessing the organ transplant list, an increase that was driven by word of mouth in Bulgaria, influenced by the excellent international reputation of the National Health System and in particular the Spanish Transplant System.

    These people traveled to Spain and sought consultation in a health center, saying they were on vacation or visiting a relative, requesting hemodialysis treatment, which is offered as a medical emergency. In some cases, individuals presented to hospital on the day of their arrival in our country...

    Read more via Google Translate here.

  • Ahmedabad MirrorAhmedabad Mirror | March 16, 2016

    [read the article]


    By

    A thick silence suffocates Pandoli village. The villagers have not got over the shock of finding that 13 men from the village had sold their kidneys illegally to fulfil their basic needs for food, medicines and security. What is worse is that there could be more victims of the kidney scam from the village. Mirror visited the village which has a population of 15,204 residents, and about 4,000 families live below poverty line. Making a mockery of the Gujarat development model, the village falls in Anand district which lies in the affluent NRG-rich belt of Charotar.

    The victims are mostly debt-ridden farmers and daily wage workers who allegedly sold their kidneys to hospitals in New Delhi and Sri Lanka. The racket, which has been reportedly running for over 15 years since 2001, came to light on Monday after police receiving a tip-off that around 80 villagers had sold their kidneys...

  • NKF United States

    National Kidney Foundation | February 25, 2016
    [read the article]


    New York, NY - The National Kidney Foundation (NKF) is calling on members of Congress to support the Living Donor Protection Act introduced in the House and Senate today.

    The bill is designed to protect the rights of living donors and remove barriers to living organ donation. Specifically, the bill would end many forms of insurance discrimination facing living donors and extend job security through the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) to those who donate an organ.

    “It’s unfortunate that even today we still see our nation’s living donors being denied insurance or having their premiums increased because they made a selfless decision to donate an organ to someone in need,” said Kevin Longino, CEO of the National Kidney Foundation. “This bill is an important first step to increase access to transplantation by removing the appalling barriers facing living kidney and liver donors. The National Kidney Foundation urges all members of Congress to support this bi-partisan legislation.”

    In 2014, 17,108 kidney transplants were performed in the United States; however, more than 100,000 Americans are on a wait list for a kidney....

  • ABC NewsABC News | February 18, 2016
    [read the article]


    By Samantha Hawley with Ake Prihantari and Archicco Guilianno

    In Majalaya, in west Java, poverty can be seen everywhere.

    In one local village, 70 per cent of people have no employment and spend their days scavenging through rubbish.

    It is here, about 200 kilometres south-east of Jakarta, the ABC found evidence of an organ trafficking trade where residents have sold their kidneys.

    The lure of 75 million Rupiah, or around $7,500, was too much for eight residents of the local village.

    Two of the victims there, including 18-year-old Ifan, has a wife and a young child.

    In the small, dark and damp room they call home, there are very few possessions and there is not a toy in sight.

    "I was in need of money to pay off my debt," Ifan said.

    "I wanted to get a big amount of money. How could I do that so I could pay off my debt and provide for my family?"

    Ifan said a broker named Amang came to the village to organise the deal, convincing him it was medically safe and his health would not suffer.

    The medical check-ups and surgery took place at the Government-run Cipto Mangunkusumo hospital in central Jakarta.

    With the money, he bought a PlayStation, a television, mobile phones and some gold.

    But it was all stolen three days later.

    "I would say I regret it very much," he said...

  • Delmonico and His HolinessInternational Society of Nephrology | February 16, 2016
    [read the article]


    By Sally Horspool

    Francis Delmonico, Senior Advisor to the Declaration of Istanbul Custodian Group (DICG), has been appointed to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences. ISN would like to congratulate him on this great achievement.

    pope and DICGThrough the DICG, Delmonico has shown longstanding dedication in combating global organ trafficking, protecting its victims who are sourced for organs and helping exploited patients.

    The DICG’s mission is to promote, implement and uphold the Declaration of Istanbul (DOI) so as to combat organ trafficking, transplant tourism and transplant commercialism and encourage the adoption of effective and ethical transplantation practices worldwide. CLICK HERE for more details.

    The group met with Pope Francis in September 2014. This private audience was arranged by the Mayor of Rome to derive support for the principles of the DOI, CLICK HERE.

    The Pontifical Academy of Sciences was established in 1936 by Pope Pius XI. Its aim is to promote the progress of the mathematical, physical, and natural sciences and the study of related epistemological problems.

     

  • Jakarta PostThe Jakarta Post | Feb 6, 2016

    [read the article]


    By Fedina S. Sundaryani and Hans Nicholas Jong

    Health Minister Nila Djuwita Anfasa Moeloek came to the defense of the Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital (RSCM), saying that doctors and administrators of the hospital were unlikely tangled up in the alleged kidney harvesting case.

    Speaking after a meeting with National Police detective division chief Comr. Gen. Anang Iskandar at the police headquarters in South Jakarta, Minister Nila said that RSCM was only engaged in legal kidney transplants and not in the business of selling the organ.

    “Kidney transplants are legal and conducted to help humanity. Currently, [the National Police’s detective division] are investigating the sale of kidneys, which is illegal [...] I don’t think [anyone from within RSCM] was involved,” Nila said.

    Nila said that RSCM had met the standard operating procedures (SOP) that donors must through before undergoing an organ removal operation. - See more at: http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2016/02/06/minister-police-clash-over-organ-sales.html#sthash.4ibptHxI.dpuf

    Fedina S. Sundaryani and Hans Nicholas Jong,

    Health Minister Nila Djuwita Anfasa Moeloek came to the defense of the Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital (RSCM), saying that doctors and administrators of the hospital were unlikely tangled up in the alleged kidney harvesting case.

    Speaking after a meeting with National Police detective division chief Comr. Gen. Anang Iskandar at the police headquarters in South Jakarta, Minister Nila said that RSCM was only engaged in legal kidney transplants and not in the business of selling the organ.

    “Kidney transplants are legal and conducted to help humanity. Currently, [the National Police’s detective division] are investigating the sale of kidneys, which is illegal [...] I don’t think [anyone from within RSCM] was involved,” Nila said...

    Fedina S. Sundaryani and Hans Nicholas Jong,

     

  • BBC newsBBC News | April 20, 2016
    [read the article]


    By Ahemed Maher

    Om Hussein is a mother close to breaking point. Along with her husband and their four young children, she is struggling with poverty like millions of other Iraqis.

    Her husband, Ali, is unemployed. He is diabetic and has heart problems. She has been the breadwinner for the past nine years, eking out a living as a housemaid. But she is now exhausted, and can no longer work.

    "I am tired and we cannot make any money to pay for the rent, medicine, children's needs and food," Ms Hussein said at the family's temporary one bedroom home in eastern Baghdad.

    Their dilapidated house collapsed a few months ago, and they have survived thanks to the help of friends and relatives.

    Her husband added: "I worked at everything you could think of. As a butcher, a day labourer, a rubbish collector. I would not ask for money, but they would give it to us. I would not ask for food.

    "I would tell my son to collect waste bread from the street and we would eat it, but I never asked for food or money."

    Facing such poverty, Ms Hussein was driven to make a huge sacrifice.

    "I decided to sell my kidney," she said. "I could no longer provide for my family. It was better than selling my body or living on charity."...

  • Guardia CivilGuardia Civil | April 11, 2016

    [read the original article in Spanish here/leer en Espanol]


    • The Spanish Civil Guard has detected a Social Security fraud enabling several citizens of Bulgarian to obtain access to dialysis and the waiting list for kidney transplantation.
    • In the Community of Madrid, 14 patients were detected who were fraudulently receiving dialysis or had already received a kidney transplant, resulting in a total cost of more than 1.5 million Euros.
    • The investigation has aborted an illegal medical tourism operation that, had it continued, would have harmed patients on the waiting list for transplants.

    The Civil Guard, as part of operation RENIBUS, has investigated a fraud involving citizens from Eastern Europe, mainly from Bulgaria, who have defrauded Social Security by highly fictitious means, in order to obtain the healthcare card and thus gain access to dialysis treatment and the waiting list for kidney transplantation.

    In the same operation seven fraudulent companies were detected giving foreign workers highly illegal permits, as well as numerous fraudulent contracts in the RETA (Special Scheme for Self-Employed).

    During the investigation, the Guardia Civil has enjoyed the cooperation of the National Transplant Organization, the Ministry of Employment and Social Security, and other agencies under the Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality and the Ministry of Health of the Madrid's community.

    The operation began after a complaint was received from the Regional Office for the Coordination of Transplants under the Ministry of Health of the Community of Madrid, in which an unusual increase in patients from Eastern Europe on waiting lists for kidney transplants was reported.

    The agents found a large number of cases in which people of other nationalities were fraudulently accessing the organ transplant list, an increase that was driven by word of mouth in Bulgaria, influenced by the excellent international reputation of the National Health System and in particular the Spanish Transplant System.

    These people traveled to Spain and sought consultation in a health center, saying they were on vacation or visiting a relative, requesting hemodialysis treatment, which is offered as a medical emergency. In some cases, individuals presented to hospital on the day of their arrival in our country...

    Read more via Google Translate here.

  • Ahmedabad MirrorAhmedabad Mirror | March 16, 2016

    [read the article]


    By

    A thick silence suffocates Pandoli village. The villagers have not got over the shock of finding that 13 men from the village had sold their kidneys illegally to fulfil their basic needs for food, medicines and security. What is worse is that there could be more victims of the kidney scam from the village. Mirror visited the village which has a population of 15,204 residents, and about 4,000 families live below poverty line. Making a mockery of the Gujarat development model, the village falls in Anand district which lies in the affluent NRG-rich belt of Charotar.

    The victims are mostly debt-ridden farmers and daily wage workers who allegedly sold their kidneys to hospitals in New Delhi and Sri Lanka. The racket, which has been reportedly running for over 15 years since 2001, came to light on Monday after police receiving a tip-off that around 80 villagers had sold their kidneys...

  • NKF United States

    National Kidney Foundation | February 25, 2016
    [read the article]


    New York, NY - The National Kidney Foundation (NKF) is calling on members of Congress to support the Living Donor Protection Act introduced in the House and Senate today.

    The bill is designed to protect the rights of living donors and remove barriers to living organ donation. Specifically, the bill would end many forms of insurance discrimination facing living donors and extend job security through the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) to those who donate an organ.

    “It’s unfortunate that even today we still see our nation’s living donors being denied insurance or having their premiums increased because they made a selfless decision to donate an organ to someone in need,” said Kevin Longino, CEO of the National Kidney Foundation. “This bill is an important first step to increase access to transplantation by removing the appalling barriers facing living kidney and liver donors. The National Kidney Foundation urges all members of Congress to support this bi-partisan legislation.”

    In 2014, 17,108 kidney transplants were performed in the United States; however, more than 100,000 Americans are on a wait list for a kidney....

  • ABC NewsABC News | February 18, 2016
    [read the article]


    By Samantha Hawley with Ake Prihantari and Archicco Guilianno

    In Majalaya, in west Java, poverty can be seen everywhere.

    In one local village, 70 per cent of people have no employment and spend their days scavenging through rubbish.

    It is here, about 200 kilometres south-east of Jakarta, the ABC found evidence of an organ trafficking trade where residents have sold their kidneys.

    The lure of 75 million Rupiah, or around $7,500, was too much for eight residents of the local village.

    Two of the victims there, including 18-year-old Ifan, has a wife and a young child.

    In the small, dark and damp room they call home, there are very few possessions and there is not a toy in sight.

    "I was in need of money to pay off my debt," Ifan said.

    "I wanted to get a big amount of money. How could I do that so I could pay off my debt and provide for my family?"

    Ifan said a broker named Amang came to the village to organise the deal, convincing him it was medically safe and his health would not suffer.

    The medical check-ups and surgery took place at the Government-run Cipto Mangunkusumo hospital in central Jakarta.

    With the money, he bought a PlayStation, a television, mobile phones and some gold.

    But it was all stolen three days later.

    "I would say I regret it very much," he said...

  • Delmonico and His HolinessInternational Society of Nephrology | February 16, 2016
    [read the article]


    By Sally Horspool

    Francis Delmonico, Senior Advisor to the Declaration of Istanbul Custodian Group (DICG), has been appointed to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences. ISN would like to congratulate him on this great achievement.

    pope and DICGThrough the DICG, Delmonico has shown longstanding dedication in combating global organ trafficking, protecting its victims who are sourced for organs and helping exploited patients.

    The DICG’s mission is to promote, implement and uphold the Declaration of Istanbul (DOI) so as to combat organ trafficking, transplant tourism and transplant commercialism and encourage the adoption of effective and ethical transplantation practices worldwide. CLICK HERE for more details.

    The group met with Pope Francis in September 2014. This private audience was arranged by the Mayor of Rome to derive support for the principles of the DOI, CLICK HERE.

    The Pontifical Academy of Sciences was established in 1936 by Pope Pius XI. Its aim is to promote the progress of the mathematical, physical, and natural sciences and the study of related epistemological problems.

     

  • Jakarta PostThe Jakarta Post | Feb 6, 2016

    [read the article]


    By Fedina S. Sundaryani and Hans Nicholas Jong

    Health Minister Nila Djuwita Anfasa Moeloek came to the defense of the Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital (RSCM), saying that doctors and administrators of the hospital were unlikely tangled up in the alleged kidney harvesting case.

    Speaking after a meeting with National Police detective division chief Comr. Gen. Anang Iskandar at the police headquarters in South Jakarta, Minister Nila said that RSCM was only engaged in legal kidney transplants and not in the business of selling the organ.

    “Kidney transplants are legal and conducted to help humanity. Currently, [the National Police’s detective division] are investigating the sale of kidneys, which is illegal [...] I don’t think [anyone from within RSCM] was involved,” Nila said.

    Nila said that RSCM had met the standard operating procedures (SOP) that donors must through before undergoing an organ removal operation. - See more at: http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2016/02/06/minister-police-clash-over-organ-sales.html#sthash.4ibptHxI.dpuf

    Fedina S. Sundaryani and Hans Nicholas Jong,

    Health Minister Nila Djuwita Anfasa Moeloek came to the defense of the Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital (RSCM), saying that doctors and administrators of the hospital were unlikely tangled up in the alleged kidney harvesting case.

    Speaking after a meeting with National Police detective division chief Comr. Gen. Anang Iskandar at the police headquarters in South Jakarta, Minister Nila said that RSCM was only engaged in legal kidney transplants and not in the business of selling the organ.

    “Kidney transplants are legal and conducted to help humanity. Currently, [the National Police’s detective division] are investigating the sale of kidneys, which is illegal [...] I don’t think [anyone from within RSCM] was involved,” Nila said...

    Fedina S. Sundaryani and Hans Nicholas Jong,

     

  • Jerusalem PostThe Jerusalem Post | January 29, 2016
    [read the article]


    By Judy Siegel-Itzkovich 

    Last year saw a record in the proportion of families of lower-brain-dead individuals who agreed to donate organs for transplant – 60 percent, according to Israel Transplant and the Health Ministry.

    Of 129 families asked by hospital transplant coordinators for permission to take organs, 77 agreed to give one or more.

    There were 433 transplant operations from deceased and live donors (174 kidneys; a 28% increase) in 2015. In addition to a variety of internal organs – hearts, livers, lungs, pancreases and kidneys – dozens of bone, tendon and heart valves were transplanted.

    According to the latest figures, 668 corneas were donated by families, and 42 burns patients received donated skin from the deceased. As people registered as potential organ donors receive priority for receiving an organ, 32% of those who received organs from the deceased were moved ahead in the queue because they had donor cards from the ADI organization..

  • the hinduThe Hindu | January 20, 2015

    [read the article]


    By T. Karnakar Reddy

    The episode looked a straight lift from the movies. The antagonist (Arun Vijay) in Entha vaadu gaani , the dubbed Telugu version of the Tamil hit Yennai Arindhaal — with Ajith Kumar in the lead — is an Ahmedabad-based smooth operator, who arranges human organs for money. The real episode that bore alarming resemblance to the film unfolded in Nalgonda, following the arrest of the kingpin in the kidney racket, Suresh Prajapathi (36), and two of his cronies, who facilitated 60 kidney transplantations.

    Police arrested Prajapathi’s accomplice Dilip Umedamal Chouhan (31), who used to help conduct health tests on donors at various diagnostic centres in Ahmedabad. They also filed cases against six Sri Lankan doctors working with four different hospitals in Colombo on the charge of conducting paid kidney transplantation in violation of ethics. Superintendent of Police Vikram Jeet Duggal told reporters on Tuesday that they arrested a native of Suryaraopet in Kakinada, Jenu Nookaraju (30), who was part of housekeeping staff in a private hotel at Gachibowli, based on phone calls received by Prajapathi in Hyderabad. Investigators realised that Prajapathi and Chouhan were coming to Hyderabad to meet Nookaraju and arrested them... [read the complete article here]

    [See also another article in The Hindu 'Kidney racket: manager of diagnostic centre held' reporting the arrest of the manager of the diagnostic centre involved in this case.]

  • times online Sri LankaSunday Times in Sri Lanka | Jan 22, 2016

    [read the article]


    Minister of Health Rajitha Senarathne said that the report of the Indian kidney transplantation racket case still has not been received legally to the Ministry of Health and a circular was issued to all private hospitals in the country prohibiting all kidney transplantations for the foreigners until the investigations are finished.

     He said that the report pertaining to the Indian kidney transplant racket  has not still been received by the Ministry of Health.  But a circular has been issued to all private hospitals  temporarily banning from performing kidney transplant operations on foreign patients until the investigations are completed, the Minister said...

  • Ceylon TodayCeylon Today | Jan 10, 2016

    [read the article]


    By Sulochana Ramiah Mohan

    Indian agents are assiduously touting neighbouring Sri Lanka as an ideal location for 'medical marvels' at reasonable costs and a hassle free operation or so it seems. So much so that Sri Lanka's fast becoming a virtual hub for this medico Mafiosi to clandestinely operate.

    But the proverbial 'lid has been blown' on the mega racket involving kidney transplants that run into as much as US$ 52,000 per transplant. Unscrupulous Indian agents are in tow with three leading hospitals in Colombo, where they wheedle healthy kidneys from utterly destitute individuals in remote parts of India, beguiling them to part with one of theirs for a sum of money that would be too tempting to them, to refuse.

    They have a network of around 95 sub agents working for the kingpins based in Kolkotta and Chennai, these two cities being pivotal centres for negotiating the kidney transactions and working cordially with three hospitals in Colombo, Ceylon Today learns.

    Colombo hospitals have become a haven for Indians to undergo illegal procedural kidney transplant surgeries. Most of whom, who hail from Rajasthan, Haryana, Chhattisgarh, and Maharashtra and the donors are from poor States such as Bihar and Jharkhand as Ceylon Today learns...

Our body parts shouldn’t be for sale

Washington PostThe Washington Post | December 29, 2015
[read the article]


By Francis Delmonico and Alexander Capron

Organ transplants have extended and improved the lives of more than a million patients over the past 60 years. This is a testament to the dedication and creativity of medical professionals as well as to the generosity of both living and deceased organ donors.

Nonetheless, the rising rate of kidney disease means that some patients won’t get the transplant they’re waiting for. That shortage of organs has led to proposals to lift the prohibition on payment that has been part of U.S. organ donation law since 1984. But buying organs would be wrong. And aside from being wrong, it would also harm existing, voluntary donation programs and be ineffective in increasing the supply of organs. There are better ways to increase the number of organs donated than paying for donations.

 

In recent decades, thousands of organs have been bought from the destitute around the world, for transplantation into the social elite in their own countries or “transplant tourists” from other nations. This has tarnished the reputation of organ transplantation and led to poor medical outcomes. In all countries, it is the poor who sell organs as a way out of their financial straits — usually only temporarily...

 

Human rights and world culture: The diffusion of legislation against the organ trade


Fikresus Fikrejesus Amahazion

Article first published online: 9 Dec 2015, DOI:10.1080/02732173.2015.1108887

Sociological Spectrum

Abstract

Due to the process of globalization, rapid medical and technological advances, and the persistence of the global scarcity in organs, the organ trade has grown to become an international issue of increasing concern. Over the past several decades, more than 100 countries have passed legislation banning the commercial trade in organs. What explains this rapid, global diffusion of commercial transplantation laws, and what are the key factors influencing legislation? This study explores these questions through an analysis based on sociology’s world culture, world polity theory. Utilizing survival analysis models, the study covers 127 countries from 1965-2012. Results offer support for the world culture/world polity theoretical framework, while economic development also impacts legislation. The global trend toward legislation is influenced by global, cultural, and economic factors.

 

Full text available here from Sociological Spectrum (subscription required).

Historical development and current status of organ procurement from death-row prisoners in China

BMC

Allison KC, Caplan A, Shapiro ME,  Els C, Paul NW, and Li H. (2015). Historical development and current status of organ procurement from death-row prisoners in China. BMC Medical Ethics, 16:85


Abstract

Background: In December 2014, China announced that only voluntarily donated organs from citizens would be used for transplantation after January 1, 2015. Many medical professionals worldwide believe that China has stopped using organs from death-row prisoners.

Discussion: In the present article, we briefly review the historical development of organ procurement from death-row prisoners in China and comprehensively analyze the social-political background and the legal basis of the announcement. The announcement was not accompanied by any change in organ sourcing legislations or regulations. As a fact, the use of prisoner organs remains legal in China. Even after January 2015, key Chinese transplant officials have repeatedly stated that death-row prisoners have the same right as regular citizens to “voluntarily donate” organs. This perpetuates an unethical organ procurement system in ongoing violation of international standards.

Conclusions: Organ sourcing from death-row prisoners has not stopped in China. The 2014 announcement refers to the intention to stop the use of organs illegally harvested without the consent of the prisoners. Prisoner organs procured with “consent” are now simply labelled as “voluntarily donations from citizens”. The semantic switch may whitewash sourcing from both death-row prisoners and prisoners of conscience. China can gain credibility only by enacting new legislation prohibiting use of prisoner organs and by making its organ sourcing system open to international inspections. Until international ethical standards are transparently met, sanctions should remain.

Read the complete paper courtesy of BMC Medical Ethics.

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