• Kidney for sale - Iran has a legal market for the organsLos Angeles Times | 15 October 2017
    [read the article]


    By Shashank Bengali and Ramin Mostaghim

    'Kidney for sale': Iran has a legal market for the organs, but the system doesn't always work

    The advertisements are scrawled in marker on brick walls and tree trunks, and affixed to telephone utility boxes, sidewalks and a road sign pointing the way to one of Iran’s leading hospitals.

    “Kidney for sale,” read the dozens of messages, accompanied by phone numbers and blood types, splashed along a tree-lined street opposite the Hasheminejad Kidney Center in Tehran.

    New ads appear almost daily. Behind each is a tale of individual woe — joblessness, debt, a family emergency — in a country beset by economic despair.

  • Eight arrested in Nowshera for illegal kidney transplantsThe Express Tribune | 26 September 2017
    [read the article]


    By Tribune Correspondent

    Eight arrested in Nowshera for illegal kidney transplants

    The FIA has arrested eight people, including a surgeon, for being involved in an illegal kidney transplant racket in Nowshera, officials said on Tuesday. “It [kidney transplantation] was being carried out illegally where poor people were offered some money for donating their kidneys,” said Federal Investigation Agency (FIA) official Mumtaz...

  • Why kidney rackets in India flourishHindustan Times | 04 October 2017
    [read the article]


    By Sanchita Sharma

    Why kidney rackets in India flourish with impunity

    The lynchpin of the most unprecedented racket was Amit Kumar (pic), who has no training in medicine or surgery. He has instead shown skill in evading the law, changing names and moving cities several times each time he secured bail after an arrest.

    Each year, more than two lakh (100,000) people need new kidneys but only 8,000 get them. The demand-supply mismatch creates a space for organ rackets where fake doctors carry out surgeries and forge documents to show donors and recipients as family...

  • From Yemen to EgyptMiddle East Eye | 30 September 2017
    [read the article]


    By MEE contributor

    Misery of Yemen's organ donors: 'It is better to starve to death'

    Ali was desperate for work. War had engulfed Yemen, he had eight children to support and he couldn't get enough jobs as a labourer to make ends meet. In early 2016 he yet again found himself walking up and down the streets near the Qat market in al-Sonaina, a quiet and poor neighbourhood of the Yemeni capital Sanaa...

  • Rewarding families WebsiteScroll.in | 28 September 2017
    [read the article]


    By Sanjay Nagral, Vivek Jha & Dominique Martin

    Rewarding families of deceased organ donors is an ethical minefield, especially in India

    India, with its history of organ trade rackets, should be cautious before proposing incentives that may be on the slippery slope towards organ commerce.

    In September, the Central government announced plans to set up a fund for families of people who have donated organs after brain stem death. The fund will support the education of children of deceased donors as well as medical expenses of other family members...

  • Trafficking in SpainEFE Agency | 26 September 2017
    [read the article]


    By Rafael Matesanz

    The threat of transplant tourism

    The Spanish model promoted by the National Transplant Organization since 1989 has allowed us to maintain global leadership for 25 years, with the greatest chances of receiving a transplant in a service that is public, universal and without discrimination. This position of privilege contrasts brutally with a widespread international situation of scarcity. The numbers are outrageous. The annual demand for transplants is estimated to be between 2-2.5 million patients while the transplant process does not exceed 127,000 operations: only 5-6 percent of those who need a transplant get one. On the other hand, in Spain more than 90 percent of these patients get one in time. These differences shine a spotlight on us for people around the world who aspire to get transplants in our country...

  • Conversations Deakin WebsiteControversial Conversations
    [more details here]


    Saturday, 28 October 2017

    Deakin University Melbourne Burwood Campus

     

    This Public Forum brings together a range of international and Australian experts in the ethics of donation and transplantation, health policy makers and professionals and community leaders, to share their knowledge and experience regarding some of the most important and controversial issues of interest to the Australian public. An unprecedented opportunity for members of the public, health professionals, students, academics, journalists and policy makers to learn about a range of issues, and to be part of a lively conversation with a variety of stakeholders exchanging perspectives and ideas...

  • Kidney for sale - Iran has a legal market for the organsLos Angeles Times | 15 October 2017
    [read the article]


    By Shashank Bengali and Ramin Mostaghim

    'Kidney for sale': Iran has a legal market for the organs, but the system doesn't always work

    The advertisements are scrawled in marker on brick walls and tree trunks, and affixed to telephone utility boxes, sidewalks and a road sign pointing the way to one of Iran’s leading hospitals.

    “Kidney for sale,” read the dozens of messages, accompanied by phone numbers and blood types, splashed along a tree-lined street opposite the Hasheminejad Kidney Center in Tehran.

    New ads appear almost daily. Behind each is a tale of individual woe — joblessness, debt, a family emergency — in a country beset by economic despair.

  • Eight arrested in Nowshera for illegal kidney transplantsThe Express Tribune | 26 September 2017
    [read the article]


    By Tribune Correspondent

    Eight arrested in Nowshera for illegal kidney transplants

    The FIA has arrested eight people, including a surgeon, for being involved in an illegal kidney transplant racket in Nowshera, officials said on Tuesday. “It [kidney transplantation] was being carried out illegally where poor people were offered some money for donating their kidneys,” said Federal Investigation Agency (FIA) official Mumtaz...

  • Why kidney rackets in India flourishHindustan Times | 04 October 2017
    [read the article]


    By Sanchita Sharma

    Why kidney rackets in India flourish with impunity

    The lynchpin of the most unprecedented racket was Amit Kumar (pic), who has no training in medicine or surgery. He has instead shown skill in evading the law, changing names and moving cities several times each time he secured bail after an arrest.

    Each year, more than two lakh (100,000) people need new kidneys but only 8,000 get them. The demand-supply mismatch creates a space for organ rackets where fake doctors carry out surgeries and forge documents to show donors and recipients as family...

  • From Yemen to EgyptMiddle East Eye | 30 September 2017
    [read the article]


    By MEE contributor

    Misery of Yemen's organ donors: 'It is better to starve to death'

    Ali was desperate for work. War had engulfed Yemen, he had eight children to support and he couldn't get enough jobs as a labourer to make ends meet. In early 2016 he yet again found himself walking up and down the streets near the Qat market in al-Sonaina, a quiet and poor neighbourhood of the Yemeni capital Sanaa...

  • Rewarding families WebsiteScroll.in | 28 September 2017
    [read the article]


    By Sanjay Nagral, Vivek Jha & Dominique Martin

    Rewarding families of deceased organ donors is an ethical minefield, especially in India

    India, with its history of organ trade rackets, should be cautious before proposing incentives that may be on the slippery slope towards organ commerce.

    In September, the Central government announced plans to set up a fund for families of people who have donated organs after brain stem death. The fund will support the education of children of deceased donors as well as medical expenses of other family members...

  • Trafficking in SpainEFE Agency | 26 September 2017
    [read the article]


    By Rafael Matesanz

    The threat of transplant tourism

    The Spanish model promoted by the National Transplant Organization since 1989 has allowed us to maintain global leadership for 25 years, with the greatest chances of receiving a transplant in a service that is public, universal and without discrimination. This position of privilege contrasts brutally with a widespread international situation of scarcity. The numbers are outrageous. The annual demand for transplants is estimated to be between 2-2.5 million patients while the transplant process does not exceed 127,000 operations: only 5-6 percent of those who need a transplant get one. On the other hand, in Spain more than 90 percent of these patients get one in time. These differences shine a spotlight on us for people around the world who aspire to get transplants in our country...

  • Conversations Deakin WebsiteControversial Conversations
    [more details here]


    Saturday, 28 October 2017

    Deakin University Melbourne Burwood Campus

     

    This Public Forum brings together a range of international and Australian experts in the ethics of donation and transplantation, health policy makers and professionals and community leaders, to share their knowledge and experience regarding some of the most important and controversial issues of interest to the Australian public. An unprecedented opportunity for members of the public, health professionals, students, academics, journalists and policy makers to learn about a range of issues, and to be part of a lively conversation with a variety of stakeholders exchanging perspectives and ideas...

  • WP China WebsiteThe Washington Post | 15 September 2017
    [read the article]


    By Simon Denyer

    China used to harvest organs from prisoners. Under pressure, that practice is finally ending.

    China’s organ-transplant system was once a cause of international scorn and outrage, as doctors harvested organs from prisoners condemned to death by criminal courts and transplanted them into patients who often paid dearly for the privilege. After years of denials, China now acknowledges that history and has declared that the practice no longer occurs — largely thanks to the perseverance of a health official who, with the quiet backing of an American transplant surgeon, turned the system around over the span of a decade...

  • HOU India WebsiteThe Times of Israel | 25 September 2017
    [read the article]


    By Raoul Wootlift

    Head of transplant organization arrested over ‘organs for donations’ scheme

    Charity suspected of bumping potential recipients to top of waiting list in exchange for funding, paying illegal compensation to donors.

    Police on Monday arrested the head of a charity that facilitates voluntary organ donations in Israel, and three of its employees, on suspicion that it illegally traded organs for donations. The arrests took place alongside raids on the suspects’ homes and the organization’s head offices in Jerusalem, according to a police statement...

Financial Incompatibility and Paired Kidney Exchange:Walking a Tightrope or Blazing a Trail?

A. C. Wiseman1, and J. S. Gill


AJT logo

Epub; 7 December 2016

Editorial:

In this issue, Rees et al advance a novel strategy to increase living donor kidney transplantation through kidney paired exchange (KPE). Global kidney exchange (GKE) proposes the use of biologically compatible but “financially incompatible” living donors and recipients from an underserved country to increase KPE in the United States. The health care savings generated by removing US patients from dialysis would be used to cover the cost of transplantation and posttransplant care including immunosuppressant drugs for the recipient in their home country for a period of 5 years in exchange for the compatible pair’s participation in KPE. The report describes the first application of GKE in which an indigent biologically compatible married couple in the Philippines who could not afford to proceed with living donor kidney transplantation was brought to the United States where the wife’s donation of a kidney ultimately facilitated KPE transplants for 10 American patients as well as for her husband.

While we applaud Rees et al’s efforts to advance a novel approach to increase living donor kidney transplantation, there are numerous considerations that require equipoise, including the legality of this new definition of “financial incompatibility.” The Charlie Norwood Act amended the National Organ Transplant Act (NOTA) to allow human organ paired donation between biologically incompatible living donors and recipients. The use of compatible donors and recipients on the basis of financial incompatibility may not be encompassed in current interpretation of NOTA. While the authors offer a thoughtful rebuttal to this consideration, expansion of GKE would probably require amendment of NOTA.The risk of exploitation (real or potential) in GKE is a significant concern...

Read the full editorial here

Opposition to irresponsible global kidney exchange

Francis L. Delmonico & Nancy L. Ascher


AJT logo

Epub; 2 August 2017

Letter to the Editor:

We are writing in opposition to the proposed “global kidney exchange” that would solicit living donors from economically underdeveloped countries such as Mexico, the Philippines, Kenya, India, and Ethiopia. The experience of representatives from countries such as India and Mexico reported at the Vatican Pontifical Academy of Sciences Summit on the topic of organ trafficking in February 2017 was very clear—these locations are sites of organ trafficking. The capacity of this project to ensure that targeted donors in underdeveloped countries will be emotionally related, free of coercion, and fully informed of risk is not feasible when the culture is so experienced with organ sales. Vendors will be readily solicited to sell their kidneys despite the “global kidney exchange” disclaimer that “commercial interest should be carefully ruled out in such kind of exchange with careful selection.”

In a pending application to the European Commission for funding, the “global kidney exchange” proposes “to match one incompatible pair with another and a scoring rubric developed to find the best possible match, utilizes each nation’s unique assets.” The notion of a living donor as a marketable “unique asset” in the context of soliciting “willing” individuals to undergo nephrectomy in underdeveloped countries is an unacceptable concept. To target economically underdeveloped countries to solicit donors when there is no assurance about the ultimate care of the living organ donor (or the absence of coercion) is unethical. What deliverable framework is being provided about the well-being of this exchange donor in an underdeveloped country that may have reliable medical care at 5, 15, and more years after nephrectomy? The risk of kidney failure in the lifetime of a donor is dependent on proper care. Successful programs of paired donation in the United States, Korea, or Europe do not exploit economic deprivation to identify matches and, again, have the capacity to care for the living donor in the long term.Targeting economically underdeveloped countries to solicit donors is an unacceptable tactic when there may be no reliable/available long-term care of the donor.

The inadequacy of using a program of “global kidney exchange” in, for example, India becomes evident in a current description of paired donation in India: “The leading cause of morbidity and mortality after kidney transplantation in India is Infection. Better HLA matched kidney transplantation for the compatible pairs will result in better long term outcome and need of re-transplantation which is common cause of sensitization.” To link kidney exchange in descriptive sequenced sentences to a reduction in infection—as a validation of such an exchange program—should elicit a responsible concern of implementing “global kidney exchange” in an underdeveloped country,especially in India, where organ trafficking is reported regularly in the media. Finally, the “global kidney exchange” program has suggested there will be oversight by organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO) and The Transplantation Society (TTS). That contention is not correct; both the WHO and TTS oppose the introduction of this “global kidney exchange” program.

Link to letter here

Epistemic Communities, Human Rights, and the Global Diffusion of Legislation against the Organ Trade

F. Amahazion


Social Sciences

2016; Epub October 27

Abstract

Over the past several decades, over 100 countries have passed legislation banning commercial organ transplantation. What explains this rapid, global diffusion of laws? Based on qualitative data from in-depth interviews, historical analysis, and secondary sources, this paper explores the role played by the medical epistemic community and human rights in the global spread of laws against the organ trade. In addition to shaping, guiding, and influencing norms and approaches to transplantation, the epistemic community has been instrumental in the development of various resolutions, policy initiatives, recommended practices, statements, legislation, and model laws. Moreover, the epistemic community helped position the organ trade as an issue of societal and global importance, and it persistently encouraged states to undertake actions, such as implementing legislation, to combat the organ trade. Critically, the epistemic community’s efforts against the organ trade incorporated the concepts of human rights, integrity, and dignity, which had diffused globally and become institutionalized in the period after WWII.

Read the complete article courtesy of Social Sciences here.

DICG Login